How To Invest in Mutual & Managed Funds in Australia?

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Students want to know how to invest in mutual and managed funds in Australia.


Do you want to grow your money but need more investment knowledge and experience? Managed or Mutual funds are one of many ways to invest and build wealth over time.


These funds pool the money of individual investors and invest the combined capital across various asset classes and market sectors. They are a great investment choice for investors who seek regular income or capital growth.


This blog discusses managed and mutual funds and how to invest them in Australia. Learn about their types, pros, and cons, ways to find the right fund, and get answers to some of the frequently asked questions on investing.


1. What Are Managed Funds?


Managed funds are popular among investors as they make investing simple.


They are personalised investment portfolios overseen by a professional fund manager who holds and controls the money on behalf of investors to meet their financial needs and goals.


A fund manager is responsible for "investing and diversifying" investors' funds across various asset classes and ensuring that the fund performs per the investor's objectives. 


As per the Australian Taxation Office, examples of a managed fund include:


  • Cash management trust

  • Mortgage Trust

  • Unit trust

  • Money market trust

  • Property trust

  • Equity trust

  • Growth trust

  • Share trust

  • Imputation trust

  • Balanced trust



2. How Does A Managed Fund Work?


Managed funds pool your funds with other investors to access various investment opportunities. Specialist investment managers invest the accumulated money per the fund's objective and strategy.


When you invest in a managed fund, the fund allocates specific units where each unit represents an equivalent portion of the fund's value. For example, if you invest $5,000 at a unit price of $1, you get 5,000 units.


Investing in a managed fund doesn't imply that you own any of the underlying investments. Instead, you own specific units in the fund. The same way you buy or sell shares.


The unit's value or price reflects the market value of the assets held in the fund at a given instant. Thus, the cost of the units may appreciate or depreciate daily with the rise and fall of the market.


Based on the type of mutual fund you invest in, you receive regular income as dividends from the fund, depending on the profit it generates from its underlying investments.


However, this is different with capital growth-oriented funds, where the profits are reinvested into underlying assets, leading to NAV appreciation.



3. Where Can You Find Managed Funds?


Some managed funds may be available on the stock exchange (not all of them).


Those listed on the stock exchange are called Listed Funds, and you can buy and sell them on the exchange. Their value is determined daily based on the price of the underlying assets held on the relevant stock exchange.


On the other hand, funds that are not on the exchange are traded directly through the fund manager. Compared to listed funds, they are valued less frequently by the fund.



4. Types Of Managed Funds


Managed funds are available in various types. To select the right fund, you need to assess the features of different funds, the returns offered, and the associated risks of managed funds.



Single Asset Managed Funds 


  • Cash Funds: This type of fund invests in short-term and low-risk investments. Examples include short-term money market deposits, bank bills, and government bonds


  • Property Funds: This fund invests in high-risk assets you can not withdraw quickly. Also, they don't offer assured returns or interest rates. Examples include residential property, property developments, commercial property, etc. 


  • Equity Funds: Such funds invest in companies listed nationally and globally. These funds are high-risk and high-rewarding. They can provide higher returns but also come with higher risks.


  • Mortgage Funds: Mortgage funds invest in high-risk property loans or mortgages. Investors receive income until the borrower pays interest. The major drawback of this investment is that the investment value may reduce if borrowers fail to repay their loans.


  • Other Investment Funds: This is a high-risk managed fund comprising hedge funds and funds that invest in derivatives, private equity, and commodities.



Multiple Assets Or Multi-Sector Managed Funds 


This type of managed fund invests in a variety of asset classes. They are categorised as follows:


  • Growth Funds: These funds invest around 85% in equity and property and the rest 15% in cash or fixed interest. They are high-risk, and you can expect a return of about 5.5% p.a.


  • Balanced Funds: It invests around 70% in stocks and property and the remaining in cash or fixed interest. They are high-risk in nature, and you can expect a return of 5.2% by investing in these funds.


  • Conservative Funds: These funds invest around 30% in stocks and property and the remaining in fixed-interest and cash. They are Medium-risk in nature, and you can expect a return of 4.4%


  • Cash: Cash-based managed funds invest 100% in purely cash or cash equivalents, including short-term money market deposits, bank bills, and government bonds. You can expect a return of 3.1%. It involves low levels of risk and volatility.



5. What Is A Mutual Fund?


Mutual funds are investment companies that combine money from a group of investors in one big pot.


They buy financial securities like stockscommoditiesbonds, and even real estate to lower costs, maximise returns and diversify investment risks.


Each mutual fund has an objective that it mentions in its prospectus. Due to their fee structures, they are for longer-term investors and unsuitable for frequent trading.


Investors who invest in these funds don't own the securities in that fund but hold fund shares. This fund share determines the amount of money that each investor receives.



6. Why Should You Invest In Mutual Funds?


The main advantage of Mutual funds is that they are broadly diversified to lower investment risks.


They are comprehensive investment vehicles that avoid researching and buying individual stocks, which makes it easier and less time-consuming for investors.


Another essential benefit of investing in Mutual funds is their highly-liquid nature which makes it easy for investors to buy and redeem shares at any time.



7. Different Types Of Mutual Funds


You can categorise mutual funds on the investing style, the type of assets they invest in, associated risks, ways of income generation, and the growth potential of the underlying assets. 


  • Bond Funds: They hold fixed-income securities and pay regular interest to their holders.



  • Balanced Funds: They hold a combination of bonds and stocks. The allocation percentage in these assets varies based on the fund's strategy.


  • Index Funds: These funds hold assets similar to the index whose performance they track, such as the S&P 500. They are comparatively economical compared to other funds due to passive management and occasional asset turnover.



8. How Do Mutual Funds Work?


Mutual funds require a minimum investment of around $1,000 to $5,000.


They trade only once during the day after the markets close. The "Net Asset Value" (NAV) determines the price of the stocks in a fund. The "NAV' is calculated after the market closes.



NAV = (The total value of all the assets held in the portfolio - any liabilities) / the number of outstanding shares.


An investor can buy or redeem mutual fund shares directly from the fund by paying entry and exit charges (as applicable).



9. How Do Mutual Funds Generate Returns?


Investors usually earn a return from a mutual fund on a quarterly or yearly basis using any one of the three ways:


  • From dividends on stocks held in the fund's portfolio

  • Interest on bonds held in the fund's portfolio

  • Capital gains if you sell the fund's shares at a higher price and earn a profit


Funds often give investors choices to either receive dividends/interest in a check or reinvest the earnings to buy more shares of the mutual fund.



10. Steps To Invest In Mutual Funds In Australia


Follow the below six steps to kickstart your investment in Mutual/Managed Funds:



Step 1: Evaluate Your Risk Tolerance And Investment Objectives


Assessing your risk appetite and financial goals will help determine the appropriateness of the investment product.


Investors with low-risk tolerance should avoid stock and aggressive bond funds, and stick to highly rated government, corporate bonds, or money market funds.


However, high-yield bonds and stock funds could be ideal if you want to generate significant returns and take on more risk.



Step 2: Decide Your Investment Strategy


Choose how you want to generate income from your mutual fund investment - capital gains or dividends.


Buy and hold on to growth stocks if you're going to grow wealth, stay invested for the long term, and don't need to generate immediate income.


On the other hand, if you want to earn a regular income on your investment, then income-oriented funds are an excellent choice. These are dividend-bearing shares and interest-bearing bonds.



Step 3: Determine Your Tax Strategy


Gains from mutual funds are taxable and can impact your annual tax liability. The more income you receive in a given year, the higher your capital gains tax brackets and ordinary income.


If you want to reduce your tax liability, avoid dividend-paying funds and choose funds that focus on long-term capital gains.


Funds that invest in tax-free municipal or government bonds that yield interest and aren't subject to federal income tax are a good choice.



Step 4: Analyse Funds 


It would be best to study several metrics before deciding on the right mutual fund for your investment:


  • Its expense ratios

  • Its investment holdings

  • The reputation and experience of the management team 

  • How long has it been around

  • Long-term track record

  • Investing approach

  • Fees (Establishment fee, Contribution fee, Management fees, Performance fee, and Adviser service fee)

  • Review the risks by reading the (Product Disclosure Statement) 



Step 5: Decide Where To Buy Mutual Funds


People who contribute to an employer-sponsored retirement account, like a superannuation account, are primarily invested in mutual funds. 

Else, you can buy it directly from mutual fund companies that created the fund, like Vanguard. You can even consult a traditional financial advisor to purchase mutual funds. Still, you may have some advisory fees for the same.



Step 6: Track The Performance Of Your Managed Fund


Once invested, regularly track the performance of your mutual fund at least once a year.


As per the law, every fund manager has to update the fund's investors on the fund's performance once every 12 months.


Read the performance reports and the fund's annual statement to understand how your investment is doing and figure out if it is helping you achieve your financial goals. So, based on your financial goals and investment horizon, monitor the performance of your managed funds periodically.



11. Managed Funds Advantages And Disadvantages


Looking at the pros and cons of investing in Managed Funds before buying them makes sense.




  • It is easy to access a managed portfolio of local and global stocks.

  • You don't need in-depth investment knowledge and do hard work researching and forming buying and selling decisions.  

  • Both mutual and managed funds are subjected to industry regulation that ensures investors' transparency, fairness, and accountability.

  • It relieves you from the hassle of constantly tracking market movements all day. 

  • Diversification is another advantage of managed investment funds. It lets you spread your money across assets of numerous industries and companies. 

  • You get exposure to all the stocks in the underlying fund at the expense of a one-time brokerage fee instead of paying a brokerage fee on each transaction for buying individual shares. Thus, Managed funds make it simple, quick, and affordable for investors to diversify their investment portfolio with individual shares.

  • Australian-managed funds are ideal for youngsters as they have low minimum investment requirements. Most managed funds allow you to start investing just a few thousand dollars or less.

  • With managed funds, you get capital appreciation through a rise in unit price and dividends.

  • You get several options to find one that suits your risk appetite and needs, i.e., conservative, balanced, growth, or high growth. You can choose from various available assets such as cash securities, stocks, bonds, real estate, listed property trusts, agriculture or agribusiness schemes, fixed interest investments, mortgage schemes, and infrastructure assets.



Disadvantages Of Managed Funds/Mutual Funds


Most Managed funds charge entry, exit, commissions, and ongoing management fees. Those funds that don't charge entry fees usually levy a higher-than-average exit fee or vice versa. 


  • Entry fees may range from 0% to 5% of the deposit amount.

  • Ongoing yearly fees or the Management Expense Ration range from 0.5% to 3% of the balance value.

  • Exit fees range from 0% to 2% of the withdrawal value.


  • Investing in Managed funds gives away a lot of control over your asset selection and investment in the hands of the fund manager.


  • Managed funds can also incur losses that can reduce the value of your investment. This can happen if the value of the fund declines due to a market crash, a deceitful fund manager, etc. 


  • Liquidity can also be a concern for investors. This happens when investors rush to redeem their units due to a fall in NAV (Net Asset Value Price) or any other reason. This can cause the trustee to "freeze" the fund and prevent further redemptions.


  • Mutual Funds lack flexibility as it has to follow their mandate. For example, a large-cap fund can't invest in small-cap stocks, and vice versa. Another example is that a value fund won't buy a growth/momentum stock. But if you are an individual investor, you have the flexibility to diversify your portfolio to a variety of funds with different market caps, strategies, and sectors.


  • Price uncertainty is another drawback where NAV (Net Asset Value Price). You will get the final price at the end of each trading session. Investors can not get real-time prices for their mutual funds, so they will have to wait until the end of the trading session.



12. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)



Is Investing In Mutual Funds A Good Idea?


Mutual funds give the benefit of professional supervision and management of investment to their investors. The fund managers follow a disciplined investment approach and perform immense market research before taking any investment decision.


Furthermore, as mutual funds invest in diverse assets, they are considered the best investment vehicle for diversification. For example, suppose a fund manager invests money in stocks. In that case, they can select stocks from varying sectors like finance, IT, energy, healthcare, FMCG, etc.


Diversification makes it safer than other investment options as it helps reduce the risks associated with investing entire capital in a particular security.


Additionally, they can beat inflation, making them an attractive investment option in long-term financial planning and achieving financial goals.


Mutual funds are versatile investment vehicles to realise your varying investment goals, such as retirement, child's education, marriage expenses, etc., at a time. However, the investment duration and the amount required to pursue these goals may differ based on one's financial plan.


Always seek the help of a professional financial advisor before making any investment decision. Investing carries risk. The above are just some general options for educational purposes. All these options come with risk. This is not financial advice.



Who Should Invest In Managed Funds?


The selection of any investment option depends on your existing financial situation and long-term goals. Managed accounts are ideal for those who have:


  • Long-term investment goals

  • Substantial investable assets

  • A unique portfolio

  • Tax concerns

  • Customisation requirements

  • A need for personalised advice



What Are Some Popular Managed Funds In Australia?


The tables will give you an idea about the past performance of some popular managed funds in Australia.


Index ETF Return Before Fees 9.06% p.a.
Index ETF fees 0.10% p.a.
Index ETF net return 8.96% p.a.
Average managed fund return before fees 8.8% p.a.
Average managed funds fees 1.32% p.a.
Average managed fund net return after fees 7.48% p.a.
$100,000 invested in the index ETF 5 years ago $153,580
$100,000 invested in the average managed fund 5 years ago $143,429
Managed funds that beat the index ETF benchmark over 5 years 80 funds (25.7%)
Managed funds that underperformed the index ETF benchmark over 5 years 231 funds (74.3%)


(Past performance does not guarantee future results.)



The Vanguard Australian Shares Index ETF is the index ETF benchmark (As of May 2022).


Best Performing Large Cap Australian Managed Funds Over Five Years


Product Name 1-Year Return 3-Year Return (p.a.) 5-Year Return (p.a.) ICR
(Fee %)
Chester High Conviction Fund 20.9 19.7 15.8 0.95
Bennelong Australian Equities Fund -4.4 12.9 12.9 1.00
Macquarie Australian Shares Fund 12.1 12.1 12.1 0.60
Alphinity Sustainable Share Fund 8.3 12.0 12.0 0.95
Smallco Bradcap Fund 5.5 9.0 11.6 1.20
Australian Ethical Australian Shares Fund (Wholesale) 1.7 14.4 11.6 1.10
Alphinity Socially Responsible Share Fund – Class B 8.1 11.8 11.6 0.90
Ausbil Australian Active Equity Fund 13.4 13.7 11.3 0.90
Hyperion Australian Growth Companies Fund -10.7 12.7 11.3 0.95
First Sentier Wholesale Australian Share Fund -3.9 10.6 10.9 0.96


(Past performance does not guarantee future results.)



Vanguard MSCI Australian Small Companies Index ETF, is the index ETF benchmark (As of May 2022)


Best Performing Small Cap Managed Funds In Australia Over Five Years


Product Name 1-Year Return 3-Year Return (p.a.) 5-Year Return (p.a.) ICR
(Fee %)
Ausbil MicroCap Fund 19.1 21.2 21.3 1.2
Eley Griffiths Group Emerging Companies Fund 10.6 18.8 20.8 1.25
SGH Emerging Companies Fund 16.6 22.8 20.8 1.03
Perennial Value Microcap Opportunities Trust -14.7 10.9 18.2 1.2
Pendal MicroCap Opportunities Fund 7.3 19.4 17.7 1.2
OC Micro-Cap Fund -9.9 17.1 17.6 1.2
Macquarie Small Companies Fund 9.3 14.2 17.5 0.9
Macquarie Australian Small Companies Fund 9.2 14.0 17.0 0.99
Fairview Equity Partners Emerging Companies Fund 4.7 13.0 15.1 1.2


(Past performance does not guarantee future results.)



How Do Beginners Invest In Mutual Funds?


Managed funds are ideal for beginners as they are professionally managed and need less effort and knowledge. However, beginners need to research when putting money into assets, as risk is always involved.

Here are some of the points that would help them in their investment journey:


  • Identify your personal and financial goals and investment timeframe. You want to save more with your existing financial assets to build a contingency fund or for retirement. Use a mutual fund calculator to calculate your returns while considering tax rates and inflation.


  • Refrain from basing your buying decision on the daily ups and downs of the market. Instead, compare funds based on their long-term returns (5 or 6 years) to get an idea of how much returns you can expect in the future.


  • Decide your investment timeframe. If your priority is security, go with the short investment timeframe (5 months to 3 years) or long-term investment (at least five years) for investment growth.


  • Read the prospectus and PDS (product disclosure statement) carefully to understand the mutual fund's investment objectives. Find out the risks involved, fees, performance, ways to file a complaint, estimated return, expenses, etc., to find which assets to invest in. Please review them before investing to make sure they meet your risk appetite.


  • Assess your tax liability by looking for funds that pay distributions/dividends regularly. Some asset classes, like shares, offer certain tax concessions to their investors via dividend imputation or franking credits. 


  • Besides tax incurred on dividends, also evaluate how much capital gains tax you will need to pay on selling your investment at a profit. You can seek a financial advisor's assistance to reduce your tax liability when investing in MFs.


  • Start small and gradually increase your investment once you are confident of the performance of the investment asset. Have a monthly savings plan that could sustain your Managed Funds.


  • Most investment experts invest in around 3 to 4 mutual funds to take the best advantage of diversification. Investing in SIPs in mutual funds is better than lump sum investments, as it helps diversify risks over time, keeping in tune with market trends.


  • Regularly check the fund's performance and track how your investment is doing. 



Which Type of Mutual Fund Is Best For Beginners?


Though you can buy mutual funds in various types, balanced funds/hybrid funds are most suited for beginners.


They expose them to a good mix of equities (high-risk) and debt (low-risk) that can help diversify their portfolio and earn good returns.



How Do You Put Money Into A Mutual Fund?


There are two ways in which you can purchase mutual fund shares:


  • Through a broker for the fund

  • From the fund itself 


To buy the mutual fund, you need to pay the fund's per share NAV (Net Asset Value) + any fees charged, like sales load at the purchase time.


When you invest in any managed fund, you purchase 'units' in the managed investment scheme or 'stocks' in the CCIV.


The number of stocks /units you get depends on the asset price (i.e., the stock or unit) the fund invests in. In most managed funds, you will require a minimum amount to invest, i.e., $5,000.


You can sell your assets (whenever necessary) back to the fund at any time and get the payment within seven days of placing the "Redeem" request.



What Are The Best-Managed Funds For Beginners? 


Commbank-managed funds are ideal for beginner investors as the platform allows them to begin investing with as little as $1,000. It is one of the reputable brokers in Australia that offer many benefits for investing in managed funds. Some of these include:


  • Diversification across an array of global investment strategies.

  • Access unique investment opportunities that only a few brokers offer to individual investors.

  • Enable you to make regular monetary contributions or reinvest income to build a corpus

  • Access the experience or expertise of professional fund managers.


Vanguard Managed Funds are another excellent option to invest your money. By opening a brokerage account, you can access a broad range of mutual funds from 100's companies.


Vanguard mutual fund offers several strategies that you can choose based on your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These include:


  • Index funds

  • Vanguard ESG funds

  • Vanguard Actively Managed Funds

  • Vanguard Target Retirement Funds


Always seek the help of a professional financial advisor before making any investment decision. Investing carries risk. The above are just some general options for educational purposes. All these options come with risk. This is not financial advice.



How Much Should You Invest In A Mutual Fund?


There are a few things to consider when deciding how much funds you should keep aside for investing:


  • Calculate how much you need for basic requirements to sustain your life. These could include house rent, utilities, food, children's education (if any), medical expenditures, and other necessary expenses. 

  • Keep aside some amount as a contingency fund to meet any emergencies. You can invest this amount anywhere you can withdraw it without delay, such as a savings account, swipe in FDs, liquid mutual funds, etc.

  • Invest the remaining money in mutual funds/managed funds based on your long-term goals, risk profile, age, and time horizon.


Invest your income based on the "50:30:20 Rule", where 50% of your income goes to meet your fixed obligations, 30% towards meeting contingencies, and 20% toward investing in MFs.



How Do You Make Money From Mutual Funds?


Mutual funds comprise a group of investments specialising in stocks, propertybonds, or gold.


So, the type of mutual fund you invest your money in will determine how much income you will earn. Investing in funds you understand and align with your financial objectives is essential.


Mutual Fund investors generally make money from their investments in three ways such as:


  • Cash dividend payments on stocks

  • Interest on bonds

  • An increase in the price of securities or funds with time or Capital gains. 

  • With property-based funds, you earn based on property appreciation, profits from business operations, and rents.



How Is A Managed Fund Different From Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs)?


You can find below comparisons between managed funds and ETFs, highlighting various aspects to provide you with a clear understanding of their differences:


  ETFs Managed Funds


High intra-day liquidity

Vary substantially from high to limited liquidity in closed-end structures
Pricing Real-time, Intra-day Vary from the end of the day to weekly or monthly
Accessibility You can trade units like regular stocks on the ASX You need to apply through a fund manager adviser, which has a higher administrative fee.
Portfolio Transparency Portfolio elements are visible daily Rarely available to investors daily
Fees, and Expenditures Charged Brokerage costs, low management fees, bid/offer spreads Higher management fees, higher expense ratios, higher operating costs, performance fees, and Buy/sell spreads.
Diversification Vary based on the fund, but usually high with exposure to an entire index Vary based on the fund



How Does A Mutual Fund Differ From Exchange Traded Funds?


The below comparison will help you determine the best investment option for you.


  ETFs Mutual Fund
Affordability As they are passively managed index funds, they have a relatively lower expense ratio, as low as 0.10%.

Their cost efficiency leads to higher net returns over the long term.
Comparatively expensive as they are actively managed and have a high volume of trading activity and transactions. Involve higher operating fees and commissions.
Trading Time ETFs can be bought and sold at any time of the day at varying prices on a stock exchange. Mutual funds can only be bought at the end of each trading session.
Tax Efficiency Due to their creation and redemption structure, investors get a capital gains advantage. More tax liabilities.
Minimum Investment No Minimum Investment is required. One can become an ETF investor by buying 1 unit of the fund. Most MFs have a minimum investment limit that is mentioned in their terms. This amount is greater than the NAV of 1 x fund unit.
Liquidity Offer higher liquidity as ETF units are directly linked to the liquidity of the shares included in the index. Offer lower liquidity than ETFs.
Trading Account A trading account is essential to trade ETFs on a stock exchange like ASX.    . No need to open a trading account to buy mutual funds.



What Is The Average Return on A Mutual Fund? 


Like other investment options, mutual fund returns can vary, ranging from losses to double-digit returns. The returns you receive depend on which sectors they invest in, their size, investment styles, type of mutual fund (active fund, passive fund, index fund, or small-cap fund), and more.


Mutual funds that comprise fixed-income assets have given lower returns than the stock exchange in the past. On the other hand, a mutual fund made of small-cap stocks offers greater volatility and higher growth potential to its investors.


In the long term, a passive fund/Index fund that tracks the performance of a specific index tends to outperform active funds that a fund manager actively manages. 


There is no average annual return that applies to all mutual funds. However, based on the past performance of the Australian stock exchange, investors can get around 8% to 10% return from buying and holding mutual fund units.


(Past performance does not guarantee future results.)



How Much Are Taxes on Mutual Funds?


The following factors influence the tax liability of a mutual fund:


  • The type of funds you invest in: Equity and Debt-oriented mutual funds.

  • The kind of gains you earn (dividend income or capital gains)

  • For how long do you long the fund



The below shows how much tax you will need to pay when selling mutual funds:


  • Short-term Capital Gains Tax (up to 1 year) – You pay a 15% tax on equity-oriented funds. In the case of debt-oriented funds, it is charged based on the investor's Income Tax slab rate.


  • Long-Term Capital Gains Tax (up to 3 years) – You pay 10% for equity-oriented funds and 20% after indexation for debt-oriented funds.



What Is Managed Fund Distribution?


Managed distribution programs are for closed-end funds that expect capital appreciation. These programs aim to convert the fund's expected long-term total return into enticing regular distributions.


Closed-end fund-managed distribution programs enable consistent, and regular payment of distributions to stockholders by:


  • Evaluating the long-term total return of a fund (both long-term appreciation and income, net of expenses)

  • Fix a regular distribution amount to pay per month or per quarter to match the total distributions of the fund to its total return over time



13. Conclusion


Many investors seek passive income, and both managed accounts and mutual funds serve as excellent vehicles to achieve this goal.


Additionally, they provide the advantages of a disciplined approach and expert account management, ensuring a steady stream of income.

We hope this guide has provided valuable insights for your investment journey in mutual and managed funds.


The advice and information on is in general nature and should not be seen as a replacement for independent financial advice. We strongly encourage readers to consult with financial experts regarding their own financial decisions and investments.

Please note that the information presented on is solely for educational purposes. Every individual's financial situation is unique, and the products and services we mention may not suit everyone. We do not provide financial advice, advisory, or brokerage services nor endorse buying or selling specific stocks or securities. It's essential to know that information might have changed since publication and past performance does not guarantee future results.


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